Phases of Hacking



Phases of Hacking:

Information Gathering

Information Gathering refers to the preparatory phases where an attacker seeks to gather information about a target prior to attack. This is the primary phase where the Hacker tries to collect as much information as possible about the target. It includes Identifying the Target, finding out the target's IP Address Range, Network, DNS records, etc. An attacker might return to this phase when he/she needs to nd out more information about the target. Passive reconnaissance involves acquiring information without direct interaction with the target. Active reconnaissance involves interacting with the target by any means. For example, telephone calls or emails to the help desk or technical department. Scanning :- Scanning refers to a pre-attack phase when the attacker scans the network for specic information on the basis of information gathered during reconnaissance. Tools that a hacker may employ during the scanning phase can include dialers, port scanners, network mappers, sweepers, and vulnerability scanners. Hackers extract information such as live machines, ports, port status, OS details, device type, system uptime, etc. to launch the attack. It involves taking the information discovered during reconnaissance and using it to examine the network. Getting Access :-

The attacker obtains access to the operating system or applications on the computer or network. The attacker can gain access at the operating system level, application level, or the network level. After scanning, the hacker designs the blueprint of the network of the target with the help of data. This is the phase where the real hacking takes place. Vulnerabilities discovered during the reconnaissance and scanning phase are now exploited to gain access. The method of connection the hacker uses for an exploit can be a local area network (LAN, either wired or wireless), local access to a PC, the Internet, or offline. Gaining access is known in the hacker world as owning the system include stack based buffer overows, password cracking, denial of service (DoS), and session hijacking.

Creating Backdoor:- It refers to the phase when the attacker tries to retain his/her ownership of the system. Once hacker has gained access, they want to keep that access for future exploitation and attacks. Sometimes, hackers harden the system from other hackers or security personnel by securing their exclusive access with backdoors, rootkits, and Trojans. Once the hacker owns the system, they can use it as a base to launch additional attacks. Attackers can upload,  download, or manipulate data, applications, and conguration on the owned system. Hiding unknown activity:-

Covering tracks refers to the activities carried out by attacker to hide malicious acts. The attacker overwrites the server, system, and application logs to avoid suspicion. Once hackers have been able to gain and maintain access, they cover their tracks to avoid detection by security personnel, to continue to use the owned system, to remove evidence of hacking, or to avoid legal action. Hackers try to remove all traces of the attack, such as log les or intrusion detection system (IDS) alarms. If you want to learn more see this link for reference :

An Ethical hacker should know the penalties of unauthorized hacking into a system. Read more at: Legality and Ethics

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